Rice Industry

Introduction
Monsoon region of rice cultivation some 7,000 years of history, Rice is the favorite food of local people, the production of rice accounted for the vast majority of the total world rice production. China is the world’s largest rice-producing countries.

Distributed and Exports
World rice production in vast majority located in the monsoon region of East Asia, South east Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia’s tropical rain forest.
Location factors of rice cultivation in Asia
- Rice-growing industry is a labor-intensive agriculture, labor-intensive and requires a lot of labor intensive, East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, dense population.
- Rice yield, rice-growing areas in Asia is the world’s most densely populated areas, less per capita arable land to grow rice, so here can ease the population pressure on land and the demand for food;
- Tropical rainforest climate, tropical, subtropical monsoon climate with adequate water and heat conditions;
- Rice in the plains and hilly areas;
- Rice is concentrated in the plains of the rivers middle and lower reaches, and plenty of water.

Characteristics of rice cultivation in Asia
- Small farmers operate. Rice production to the family as a unit, less per capita arable land per arable fields, household rice farming area of southern China is generally less than one hectare;
- The yield per unit area, but the commodity is low. Intensive farmers in the fields, so that the rice yield per unit area higher. But a considerable part of the rice due to the small scale of production, the total output of household rice, subject to the constraints of traditional values and economic level, the farmers will receive up reserved for their own use, and sent to the rice sold on the market is limited ; Thailand special case, its exports.
- Mechanization and low technological level. Farmers engaged in manual labor in general, nearly two decades, the use of electricity for irrigation, threshing and other development faster, gradually increase the usage of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, but in general, the level of mechanization and technology is still relatively low; the exception of Japan paddy mechanization has made great progress, the level of mechanization of rice production in other Asian countries is still low.
- Hydraulic engineering Irrigated rice production base. Frequent floods and drought disasters in the monsoon regions, the threat to rice production is very high. Small holder business is unable to build water conservancy projects, the need for government to invest heavily and the organization of water conservancy construction;

Except Asia, Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, Europe, Spain, Italy, Latin America, Cuba, Venezuela, Brazil, the rice exports growing industry in the lower Mississippi River region, but also distributed large tracts of paddy fields, but with the large-scale dry land live production.

Rice Production Guide – How To Grow Rice

PHILOSOPHY:
“Do the right things right the first time and consistently all the time to survive.”

OBJECTIVES:
General:
To institutionalize the concept of quality and productivity in rice production to attain self sufficiency and make the rice industry competitive in the open market.
Specific:
To educate farmers, extension workers, stakeholders in the following aspects:
- Techniques in quality and productivity management thru the practice of “doing the right things right the first time.”
- Skills and knowledge on the rice technology, including time management, appropriate time and method of application.
- Establishing showcases on TQPM for rice to enhance extension strategy of “putting the end in mind first” as a tool to paradigm shifting and to complement the philosophy of   “seeing is believing” and “learning by doing.”
- Development of a small and medium rice enterprise.

APPROACHES:
- Social preparation to attain effectiveness of TQPM philosophy
- System development, service complementation and rational resource allocation
- Integration of location specific technologies
- Contingent leadership, teamwork and cooperation

KEY AREAS OF APPLICATION:
Phase -1:
- Social preparation, coordination and team building for the development of an effective TQPM
- Create awareness on social/economic status, level of education, technical capability, available resources, and alternative practices.
- Build effectiveness through balance production and production capability (resources and assests that produce results).
- Paradigm shift
-  Quality and productivity concepts, and farming systems application in rice production.
-  Social mobilization and participation
-  Coordination and team building
-  The practice of TQPM thru 5-S
-  Theoretical technology orientation, presentation, and discussion

Phase -2:
Field application of integrated location specific technologies:
Soil Amelioration Technique for Rice Production:
- Soil technology on balanced fertilization and nutrient management.
-  Efficient Water Utilization Sound water management to control  and prevent pests and diseases.
-  Environmental protection through Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Alternative Pest Management (APM)
Economically and ecologically sound cultural practices:
-  Other cultural management practices (from seedling to harvesting
-  Economic activities (postharvest technology, value-adding process, and marketing)

Phase -3:
Rice Culmination and Field Day:
-  Analysis and presentation of results
-  Farmer recognition
-  Panel Discussion

RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY & CULTURAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES through TQPM
1. Selection of quality seeds for customized and commercialized demand
Look for the following features:
-  High full grain recovery during milling
-  Pleasing physical appearance
-  Good aroma
-  Superior eating quality
-  High yielding
-  High market demand

2. Proper seed treatment and incubation for the production of healthy seedlings
-  Break seed dormancy by soaking it in hot water at 60 to 65oC for five minutes.
-  After seed incubation for 24 to 30 hours, broadcast germinated seeds in a well-prepared porous seed bed at a rate of one kg/10 to 20 sq.m.

3. Seedling Care and Maintenance for Rice
- Maintain seedbed water at saturation level for five days after broadcast.
- Increase water depth to one cm when the first  two leaves fully opens and maintain the water level for 12 days.
- Utmost care must be observed and practiced to avoid root injury during pulling.
- Seedlings must be planted right after being pulled at the age of 12 to 15 days old.

4. Sound Soil Management Practices
-    To allow normal and healthy root growth, plow the soil at a depth of four to five inches to break shallow hard pan.
- Avoid constant use of shallow soil rotavator like “turtle” soil tillers during land preparation.
- Ameliorate soil by adding organic matter and micronutrients deficient in the soil.
- For seedbed, make soil porous by adding enough carbonized rice hulls.

5. Nutrient Management Practices
- Provide ample nutrient during seedbed preparation for normal growth of seedlings.
- One day before transplanting, drain water  completely and apply all needed amount of complete inorganic and organic fertilizer and micronutrients.
- Balance soil nutrient based on location specific recommendations.

Distance of planting:
6.  Planting Method
Distance of planting:
- 40 cm between rows
- 10 cm between hills
Orientation:
- East to west direction
Seeding rate:
- One to two  seedlings/hill for high tillering varieties
- Two to three  seedlings for low tillering varieties

7. Water Management (Intermittent Irrigation)
- Drain water completely before transplanting.
- Newly transplanted paddy should not be irrigated five to six days after transplanting (DAT).
- Allow irrigation water in the paddy.
- Irrigate rice field six to seven DAT with one to two  cm depth of water to soften the paddy soil to facilitate easy control of weeds.

TQPM “Rule of Thumb”:
- Irrigate if moisture saturation is 1 to 1.5 inches below the top soil;
OR
When thin mud below 1to 1.5 inches stick to your finger or by  thrusting a stick into the soil for moisture saturation point determination.

8. Pest Management:
Practice the following to avoid unnecessary use of insecticide:
- Allow multiplication of beneficial insects by providing their natural habitat.
- Grow/put attractants for destructive insects for their mechanical and biological control.
- Always make your field clean to avoid infestation of rats.
- Observe cycle/season of planting.

9. Sound Postharvest Technology Practices:
Observe the following:
- Proper time for harvesting
- Proper handling during harvesting
- Proper threshing
- Proper drying