Rice Production Guide – How To Grow Rice

PHILOSOPHY:
“Do the right things right the first time and consistently all the time to survive.”

OBJECTIVES:
General:
To institutionalize the concept of quality and productivity in rice production to attain self sufficiency and make the rice industry competitive in the open market.
Specific:
To educate farmers, extension workers, stakeholders in the following aspects:
- Techniques in quality and productivity management thru the practice of “doing the right things right the first time.”
- Skills and knowledge on the rice technology, including time management, appropriate time and method of application.
- Establishing showcases on TQPM for rice to enhance extension strategy of “putting the end in mind first” as a tool to paradigm shifting and to complement the philosophy of   “seeing is believing” and “learning by doing.”
- Development of a small and medium rice enterprise.

APPROACHES:
- Social preparation to attain effectiveness of TQPM philosophy
- System development, service complementation and rational resource allocation
- Integration of location specific technologies
- Contingent leadership, teamwork and cooperation

KEY AREAS OF APPLICATION:
Phase -1:
- Social preparation, coordination and team building for the development of an effective TQPM
- Create awareness on social/economic status, level of education, technical capability, available resources, and alternative practices.
- Build effectiveness through balance production and production capability (resources and assests that produce results).
- Paradigm shift
-  Quality and productivity concepts, and farming systems application in rice production.
-  Social mobilization and participation
-  Coordination and team building
-  The practice of TQPM thru 5-S
-  Theoretical technology orientation, presentation, and discussion

Phase -2:
Field application of integrated location specific technologies:
Soil Amelioration Technique for Rice Production:
- Soil technology on balanced fertilization and nutrient management.
-  Efficient Water Utilization Sound water management to control  and prevent pests and diseases.
-  Environmental protection through Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Alternative Pest Management (APM)
Economically and ecologically sound cultural practices:
-  Other cultural management practices (from seedling to harvesting
-  Economic activities (postharvest technology, value-adding process, and marketing)

Phase -3:
Rice Culmination and Field Day:
-  Analysis and presentation of results
-  Farmer recognition
-  Panel Discussion

RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY & CULTURAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES through TQPM
1. Selection of quality seeds for customized and commercialized demand
Look for the following features:
-  High full grain recovery during milling
-  Pleasing physical appearance
-  Good aroma
-  Superior eating quality
-  High yielding
-  High market demand

2. Proper seed treatment and incubation for the production of healthy seedlings
-  Break seed dormancy by soaking it in hot water at 60 to 65oC for five minutes.
-  After seed incubation for 24 to 30 hours, broadcast germinated seeds in a well-prepared porous seed bed at a rate of one kg/10 to 20 sq.m.

3. Seedling Care and Maintenance for Rice
- Maintain seedbed water at saturation level for five days after broadcast.
- Increase water depth to one cm when the first  two leaves fully opens and maintain the water level for 12 days.
- Utmost care must be observed and practiced to avoid root injury during pulling.
- Seedlings must be planted right after being pulled at the age of 12 to 15 days old.

4. Sound Soil Management Practices
-    To allow normal and healthy root growth, plow the soil at a depth of four to five inches to break shallow hard pan.
- Avoid constant use of shallow soil rotavator like “turtle” soil tillers during land preparation.
- Ameliorate soil by adding organic matter and micronutrients deficient in the soil.
- For seedbed, make soil porous by adding enough carbonized rice hulls.

5. Nutrient Management Practices
- Provide ample nutrient during seedbed preparation for normal growth of seedlings.
- One day before transplanting, drain water  completely and apply all needed amount of complete inorganic and organic fertilizer and micronutrients.
- Balance soil nutrient based on location specific recommendations.

Distance of planting:
6.  Planting Method
Distance of planting:
- 40 cm between rows
- 10 cm between hills
Orientation:
- East to west direction
Seeding rate:
- One to two  seedlings/hill for high tillering varieties
- Two to three  seedlings for low tillering varieties

7. Water Management (Intermittent Irrigation)
- Drain water completely before transplanting.
- Newly transplanted paddy should not be irrigated five to six days after transplanting (DAT).
- Allow irrigation water in the paddy.
- Irrigate rice field six to seven DAT with one to two  cm depth of water to soften the paddy soil to facilitate easy control of weeds.

TQPM “Rule of Thumb”:
- Irrigate if moisture saturation is 1 to 1.5 inches below the top soil;
OR
When thin mud below 1to 1.5 inches stick to your finger or by  thrusting a stick into the soil for moisture saturation point determination.

8. Pest Management:
Practice the following to avoid unnecessary use of insecticide:
- Allow multiplication of beneficial insects by providing their natural habitat.
- Grow/put attractants for destructive insects for their mechanical and biological control.
- Always make your field clean to avoid infestation of rats.
- Observe cycle/season of planting.

9. Sound Postharvest Technology Practices:
Observe the following:
- Proper time for harvesting
- Proper handling during harvesting
- Proper threshing
- Proper drying